Mobile devices, such as smartphones, smartwatches, and tablets, are advancing rapidly in hardware and software technology, but not every device is compatible with every technology. Many devices, . include cars, are only compatible with the particular technologies already supported by the cellular carrier. Moreover, compatibility of equipment among different cellular carriers can be problematic.
One issue of compatibility is the . In other words, what is the physical radio frequency range of the cellular carrier and what is the channel plan that the cellular carrier uses? Although other, non-radio frequency, factors can also cause problems, . for example the number of tones on the frequency plan for a cellular carrier in a certain country, such as the United States. Wireless . service providers (WSPs) work with cellular carriers to solve these compatibility problems. For example, Sprint enables the iPhone to use 3G . and 4G LTE . on its network.
Another issue of compatibility is the . The cellular carrier can specify a certain access point (AP), . The AP . defines the physical and logical boundaries of the cellular carrier’s network. The AP can be either a wireless local area network (WLAN) or a cellular carrier. One way to do this is to provide all the APs with a unique . In this case, the AP identifies itself and provides an association identifier (ID) to the user equipment (UE). The association ID indicates the identity of the AP and can be associated with the UE in the cellular carrier’s network. With this unique association ID, the cellular carrier’s service can be accessed by the UE in any of the wireless carrier’s cellular networks.
Another issue of compatibility is the . When a UE registers for service, the WSP provides a list of APs . The APs are sorted in the order of their association IDs and are the basis for the UE’s association . With the AP’s list, the WSP can also provide a channel plan. The channel plan defines how the WSP will assign the channels for the connection of the UE with the AP.
To address the compatibility issues of wireless technologies, the . This is the base for a service provider to deliver service. For instance, the IEEE 802.11 wireless specifications define a common radio frequency, . This radio frequency may also be called a frequency, . in particular, a specific bandwidth (band). There are two frequency bands in the IEEE 802.11 specifications: the 2.4 GHz . band and the 5 GHz . band. Both the 2.4 GHz and the 5 GHz frequency bands . operate . Thus, any device compatible with IEEE 802.11 must support either the 2.4 GHz or the 5 GHz . band .